By Virmani, O. P.; Narula, A. K.
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Additional info for Applied Chemistry Practice
Or l50 Phenolphthalein Alkalinity 5~ x A x 1~0 x 50 gil 1 1 .. 50 x A x 100 x 50 x 1000 mg/l ",,10 x A ppm Similarly, Total Alkalinity or Methyl Orange Alkalinity 1 1 .. 50 x (A + B) x 100 x 50 x 1000 mg/) .. 10 x (A + B) ppm Hydroxide Alkalinity 1 1 .. 50 x (A - B) x 100 x 50 x 1000 mg/l .. 10 x (A - B) ppm Hydroxide iOIl 1 1 concentration = 50 x (A - B) x 100 x 17 x 1000 mg/l .. 34ppm .. 34 ppm Carbonate Alkalinity 1 1 50 x 2B x 100 x 50 x 1000 10 x 2B ppm when A > B and 1 1 .. 50 x 2A x 100 x 50 x 1000 10 x 2AppmwhenA s B 30 Carbonate ion concentration ..
How does the presence ofNH4 + ions in the sample affect the determination? 47. What is meant by indicator-hlank correction? How can it he avoided in the chloride iOIl estimation'! 48. What is the effect of temperature on the determination? 49. How is the test performed on walers having (i) colour and turbidity, and (ii) H 2S odour'! 3 Har'dness Water samples thilt do not readily produce lather with soap, or deposit scale on the walls of the container when there is apprcciahle change in tcmperature, are calkd Hard Waters.
In fact, production units not using water for some purpose or the other may be hard to find. It is for this reason that before setting up a production unit at a particular site, the quantity of water needed, the character and quality of water available and the effect of impurities in water on the process must be considered. Although available in abundance, water from almost all the sources is associated with some kind of impurities; their nature and amount varying with the source of water. Rain water, the purest form of natural water, usually contains dust particles and gases dissolved from atmosphere, such as 02, N 2, CO 2 (ammonium salts, HzS, or H2S04 may be present in rain waters in industrial areas).
Applied Chemistry Practice by Virmani, O. P.; Narula, A. K.