By Waltraud Q. Morales
Compliment for the former version: ...the author's devotion to Bolivia and challenge for its destiny shines through...Recommended.--Choice
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Additional info for A Brief History of Bolivia
Most Indians were either outright feudal serfs or marginal sharecroppers of tiny subsistence plots rented for a portion of their harvest and personal service obligations to the wealthy hacendado and his family. After independence, the hacienda landowning structure created and perpetuated the feudal or semifeudal society in which the hacendado was the autocratic lord of the manor who exercised ultimate political, social, and economic control over everything and everyone on his lands. In Bolivia, these conditions remained basically unchanged until the 1952 revolution.
Atahuallpa: Ruler of Quito, defeated and killed his brother, Huáscar, and was himself captured and killed by the Spanish conqueror, Francisco Pizarro. but otherwise, family plots were farmed only by that family. Additionally, there was an involuntary labor system called the mita that forced all able-bodied males to serve the Sapa-Inca. In this way the empire ensured that it had the necessary manpower to supply soldiers for the imperial army and laborers to build and maintain imperial roads and irrigation systems and to work the state mines.
The mining code was also important to the preservation of order and rational operation of the industry. With more than 600 individually owned mines in Potosí, all representing different shafts, elaborate rules of ownership were essential. As a result of these innovations, silver production revived and continued to the end of the 17th century. In the 18th century, even as silver extraction was declining, the magnificent colonial city of Potosí flourished. Its impressive churches, architecture, and works of art were produced in this golden century.
A Brief History of Bolivia by Waltraud Q. Morales